Current Affairs 19th January, 2019


Topics Covered

1. Indian Art and Culture – from ancient to modern times

National Museum of Indian Cinema

What to read?

Prelims - National Museum of Indian Cinema

Mains – Role of Cinema in Indian lives

The Prime Minister, will inaugurate the new building for National Museum of Indian Cinema on January 19, 2018 in Mumbai.

National Museum of Indian Cinema

  • The National Museum of Indian Cinema has been set up to showcase the rich cinematic history of India as well as to encapsulate socio-cultural history of India as revealed through evolution of Cinema.

  • It will take the visitors through an absorbing journey of more than a century of Indian Cinema in a story telling mode with the help of visuals and graphics, film clippings, artefacts, publicity materials, interactive exhibits and many more.

Role of Cinema in Indian Lives

Cinema has become necessary in daily activities. It is a better medium to reflect the nature of the society and has also played a role in changing the lifestyle of the people.

It is true that it has been playing a prominent role in portraying nation’s cultural identity.

1) The theme of the movie has been changing reflecting the prevailing culture of the society. For example, Stories of freedom struggle and nature of Indian labour abroad in 50s and 60s, Agrarian lifestyle and issues in 70s, unemployment,dowry,population issues and also the role of family in 80s. Westernisation in 90s. Modern Science, Role of women in society have also been captured in the 20th century movies.

2) They are certain movies which also played a role in mentioning the importance of unity and patriotism such as Bombay (1995).

However, Cinema being a powerful medium to reach the masses, it has not yet utilized the platform and few movies reflect the false identity of Indian culture.

1) Stereotypes on role of women and caste groups in society

2) Depiction of erroneous science

3) Excessive violence, criminal stories and pornography

4) Over emphasis on love and showing a sense of dissatisfaction on life upon failures.

Thus, Film makers need to understand their powerful role and create realistic stories and themes to have a positive impact on the society and depict the culture only in a right manner. It is high time to understand that ‘A Good Film is higher than any Education and a Bad film is more than a Poison’

Probable Mains Question

Indian Cinema plays a vital role in shaping the cultural and historical aspects of Indian lives. Evaluate.


Topics Covered

1. Geography - Physical features – Avalanche

2. Disaster and Disaster Management

Avalanche hits Leh

Image result for Avalanche hits Leh

What to read?

Prelims – About Avalanche

Mains – NDMA guidelines for Landslides and Avalanches

At least 10 people were trapped after the avalanche hit the road of Khardung La Pass.


Image result for Avalanche

This is a rapid downslope movement of a large detached mass of snow, ice, and associated debris such as rocks and vegetation. Small avalanches, or Sluffs, occur in large numbers, while large avalanches that may encompass slopes a kilometer or more in length with millions of tons of snow, occur infrequently but cause most of the damage. Humans have been exposed to the threat of sliding snow for as long as they have inhabited mountainous regions.


1. Loose snow avalanches

Mass of loose snow that originates at a single point on a slope, steeper than its natural angle of repose and gathers cohesion-less snow on the surface of the pack as it descends.

With higher momentum , it even ascend an opposite valley slope.

2. Slab avalanches

Originate in snow with sufficient internal cohesion to enable a snow layer, or layers, to react mechanically as a single entity. A slab avalanche breaks free along a characteristic fracture line, a sharp division of sliding from stable snow

3. Wet snow avalanches

These move more slowly than dry ones and are seldom accompanied by dust clouds. Their higher snow density can lend them enormous destructive force in spite of lower velocities.

4. Direct action avalanches

These are the immediate result of a single snowstorm. They usually involve only fresh snow.

5. Climax avalanches

Result of a series of snowstorms or a culmination of weather influences. Their fall is not necessarily associated with a current storm or weather situation.


Avalanches form as soon as the force of gravity on the snow cover exceeds its mechanical strength.

An avalanche needs a steep slope, snow cover, a weak layer in the snow cover and a trigger to initiate movement.

Convex slopes are more susceptible to avalanches than concave slopes.


Early warning System  

Methods  of anticipating an avalanche hazard includes-

• The examination of the snow cover structure for patterns of weakness

• Analysis of the meteorological, factors affecting snow depositions

Avalanche Prevention Structure:


 Stepped Terrace

 Avalanche prevention piles

 Avalanche prevention fence

 Suspended tence

 Snow net

 Snow prevention fence

 (Collector type)

 Snow prevention fence

  (Blower type)




To prevent avalanches from initiating or to retard movement before it gains momentum


Probable Mains Question

Almost 22 states in our country are vulnerable landslides. Its threat to life and property also rises gradually. What are the steps to be taken in mitigation?


Topics Covered

1. Governance

2. Infrastructure


What to read?

Prelims – About DGCA and Integrated Standby Instrument System

There have been 69 instances of engine failure of Airbus A320neo aircraft operated by IndiGo in 2018, according to the data available from the Directorate-General of Civil Aviation.

DGCA – Director General of Civil Aviation

  • DGCA is India’s regulatory body for civil aviation. It comes under the aegis of Union Ministry of Civil Aviation.

  • As a regulatory body, it seeks to promote

    • Safe and efficient Air Transportation through regulation and proactive safety oversight system in India.

    • Enforce civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards in India as per International standards.


Image result for integrated standby instrument system

  • An integrated standby instrument system (ISIS) is an electronic aircraft instrument intended to serve as backup in case of failures in a glass cockpit instrument system, and thus is designed to operate as reliably and independently as possible from the aircraft's main instrument system, with provisions for backup power, and embedded sensors when possible


Topics Covered

1. Governance

2. Role of Indian Diaspora

Pravasi Bharathiya Divas, 2019

Image result for Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, 2019

What to read?

Prelims and Mains – Pravasi Bharathi Divas and its significance

The Pravasi Bhartiya Divas (PBD) will be held at Varanasi on January 21. The theme of the PBD 2019 is “Role of Indian Diaspora in building a New India”

The convention held during the Pravasi Bhartiya Divas (PBD) provides an important platform to engage and connect with the overseas Diaspora. The chief guest for this year’s Pravasi Bhartiya Divas Pravind Jugnauth, Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Image result for role of indian diaspora

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas

  • It is a celebratory day observed on 9 January, biennially (after 2015) to mark the contribution of the overseas Indian community towards the development of India

  • The day commemorates the return of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa to Mumbai on 9 January 1915

  • It is sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and the Ministry of DoNER

  • A celebratory event is held on 7–9 January in an Indian city: a forum for issues concerning the Indian Diaspora is organized and the Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Awards are given

  • The latest 14th PBD was held in Bengaluru, Karnataka in January 2017

  • MEA also organizes Regional PBD periodically outside India to connect with the Indian Diaspora in specific regions, familiarize them with the policies and programmes of the Government and enable them to contribute to India’s development and growth, and address their concerns

Why Postponed in 2019?

The PBD 2019 has been delayed to facilitate the dignitaries to participate in the Kumbh Mela being held at Prayagraj and the Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi.