PAPER – 1
1. Indian History – Monuments – Memorials
National War Memorial
What to read?
Prelims – About the Memorial
Inauguration of the National War Memorial (NWM) which was scheduled for January 25 has been postponed as construction work is still incomplete
India has decided to erect a National War Memorial in the vicinity of the India Gate, New Delhi, to honour its Armed Forces.
A War Museum will be also constructed in the adjoining Princess Park area. The proposed National War Memorial and the War Museum will be connected by a subway. The War Memorial and Museum are expected to cost ₹400 crore
The memorial will be made around the existing chhatri (canopy) near India Gate.
The memorial wall will be flushed with the ground and in harmony with existing aesthetics.
Names of martyrs killed in wars in 1947–48, 1961 (Goa), 1962 (China), 1965, 1971, 1987 (Siachen), 1987-88 (Sri Lanka), 1999 (Kargil), and other operations will be inscribed on the memorial walls. Foreign architects are expected to be consulted.
The Princess Park, is a 14-acres area north of India Gate, with barrack-type accommodation, built during World War II, which since 1947 has served as family accommodation for mid level armed forces officers posted in Service Headquarters in New Delhi.
PAPER – 1
1. Art and Culture
2. Modern Indian History
Subash Chandra Bose Museum
What to read?
Prelims – About the Museum
Mains – Role of Subash Chandra Bose in freedom struggle
The Prime Minister will inaugurate the Subhash Chandra Bose museum at Red Fort, New Delhi on 23 January 2019.
Yaad-e-Jallian Museum - museum on Jallianwala Bagh and World War I , New Delhi
Museum on 1857- India’s first war of Independence, New Delhi
Drishyakala- Museum on Indian Art at Red Fort, New Delhi.
SC Bose Museum And Indian National Army Museum
The Museum on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Indian National Army provides a detailed account of Subhash Chandra Bose and the history of Indian National Army. It also showcases various artefacts related to Subhash Chandra Bose and INA. The artefacts include wooden chair and sword used by Netaji, medals, badges, uniforms and other artefacts related to INA.
PM laid the Foundation stone of the museum on October 21, 2018. It marked the celebrations of the 75th anniversary of Azad Hind Government, formed by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
SC Bose Award
An award in the name of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, was announced by the PM Narendra Modi to honour those involved in disaster response operations. The occasion was the dedication of National Police Memorial to the nation, on 21 October 2018.
Role of SC Bose in Freedom struggle
Shubhash Chandra Bose was one of the person who fight for India freedom and he was the also called as Netaji. On behalf and for co-operation with Gandhi he was ready to participate in non coperation movement.
Contribution of Bose to INA and events:
1. He was believing that only with Non voilence with British is not going to get freedom but there is to have Krantijari movement to fight against the British.
2. After second world war British government keep eyes on Bose but he run from their hand and reached to Germany and took help from Hitler and Mussolini.
3. After that he moved to Japan he formed INA with Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore and India.
4. Captain Laxmi was the women leader of women army.
5. In 1943 INA soldier on Andaman and Nicobar and in Indian region Kohima and Imphal Manipur make free form British with 10000 British force dead in this fight.
6. But defeat of Japan in second world war soldier withdrew the army from Myanmar and Singapore.
7. For the future plan of INA Bose was moving to Manchuria when he died on Aug 1945 in blast of airplane and after that British government. The court martial held the three INA men guilty and sentenced them to deportation for life, but the sentences were commuted under immense public pressure.
Probable Mains Question
Examine the contributions of Subhash Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army (INA) to India’s freedom struggle and the events that led to its reconciliation in the national mainstream.
PAPER – 2
1. International Organisations
2. Governmental intervention in protecting the weak sections of the society
ILO demands for Universal Labour Guarantee
What to read?
Prelims – ILO, Universal Labour Guarantee
Mains – Significance of ULG
As heads of State and business leaders gather in Davos for the World Economic Forum this week, the UN agency that sets international labour standards is asking them to commit to a universal labour guarantee, universal social protection from birth to old age.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all. The ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO.
In 1969, the organization received the Nobel Peace Prize for improving peace among classes, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
The ILO registers complaints against entities that are violating international rules; however, it does not impose sanctions on government.
Reports - World Employment and Social Outlook, Global Wage report
Need of Universal Labour Guarantee
In a report on the ‘Future of Work’, released in Geneva on Tuesday to mark its centenary, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) warned that “without decisive action we will be sleepwalking into a world that widens inequality, increases uncertainty and reinforces exclusion, with destructive political, social and economic repercussions.
Around the world, 190 million people are unemployed, while 300 million workers live in extreme poverty, according to the ILO. Wage gaps are growing at a time of declining wage growth.
Two-thirds of jobs in the developing world are susceptible to automation, and only 15% of households in emerging countries have Internet access.
Implementing the Paris Climate Agenda could create 24 million new jobs, but it could still be brutal to the 6 million workers expected to lose their jobs in the transition to a greener economy.
In such a situation,ILO asked all countries to “place people at the centre of economic and social policy”, ensuring that final decisions are taken by human beings.
Indian Constitution- Important amendments and parts.
Salient features of RPA.
10th Schedule of the Constitution
What to read?
Prelims: Features of 10th schedule of the constitution, dismissal, exceptions and judicial review of the decision.
Mains: Significance of anti- defection law, concerns associated with its misuse and measures to improve its transparency.
The Punjab Assembly has issued notice to Sukhpal Singh Khaira, Former rebel AAP leader and MLA from Bholath, for disqualification under the 10th Schedule of the Constitution.
Mr. Khaira had resigned from the party on January 6, but did not resign as legislator. Later, he floated a new political outfit.
What is the anti-defection law?
The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by the 52nd Amendment Act. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
The decision on question as to disqualification on ground of defection is referred to the Chairman or the Speaker of such House, and his decision is final.
The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies.
If a member of a house belonging to a political party:
Voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party, or
Votes, or does not vote in the legislature, contrary to the directions of his political party. However, if the member has taken prior permission, or is condoned by the party within 15 days from such voting or abstention, the member shall not be disqualified.
If an independent candidate joins a political party after the election.
If a nominated member joins a party six months after he becomes a member of the legislature.
Exceptions under the law:
Legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. The law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favour of the merger. In such a scenario, neither the members who decide to merge, nor the ones who stay with the original party will face disqualification.
Decision of the Presiding Officer is subject to judicial review:The law initially stated that the decision of the Presiding Officer is not subject to judicial review. This condition was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1992, thereby allowing appeals against the Presiding Officer’s decision in the High Court and Supreme Court. However, it held that there may not be any judicial intervention until the Presiding Officer gives his order.
PAPER – 2
1. Issues and Management of Health Sector
Swine flu cases spike
What to read?
Prelims – Swine Flu and Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
With 49 swine flu deaths and 1,694 cases reported in just one fortnight from January 1-13 as per data released by the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), several States are on alert.
Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenzaviruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that is the most common cause of human influenza.
It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells.
Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).
The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) is a disease surveillance scheme under the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs in India, assisted by the World Bank.
The scheme aims to strengthen disease surveillance for infectious diseases to detect and respond to outbreaks quickly
The scheme seeks to set up a Central Disease Surveillance Unit and a State Surveillance Unit in each State where data is collected and analyzed.
A large amount of data on disease reports are collected in order to be able to identify the outbreak of a disease, identify its causes and take corresponding preventive and responsive measures.
An early warning system has been put into place in order to take timely preventive steps.