Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy
GS 2 Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Union Cabinet has given its approval for delegating the powers to Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Finance Minister to award the Blocks or Contract Areas of hydrocarbons to successful bidders under Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy.
Blocks are to be awarded twice in a year.
This  will expedite the decision making process on awarding blocks and give a boost to the exploration of indigenous hydrocarbons.
About the policy:

  • The main features are Revenue Sharing Contract, single Licence for exploration and production of conventional as well as unconventional Hydrocarbon resources,
  • Marketing and pricing freedom, shift from profit sharing to revenue sharing.
  • Open Acreage Licensing Policy under Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy, is main innovative feature wherein investor can carve out Blocks of their own interest and submit an Expression of Interest throughout the year.
  • Depending  on the areas for which expression of interest has been expressed bidding will be conducted every 6 months.
Need for the new Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy:
India is the 3rd largest consumer of crude oil and petroleum products.
India’s crude oil import dependence rose to 81% from 78.5%.
In last five years, India has seen overall decline in exploration and production of conventional resources.
Bureaucratic hurdles like multiple approvals and sanctions, cost overruns, and disputes led to some oil majors leaving their awarded blocks and exit from the space.

MIMO Technology
GS 3 Awareness in IT, science and technology.

Multiple-input multiple-output, or MIMO, is a radio communications technology or RF technology that is being mentioned and used in many recent technologies.
Common uses :
Wi-Fi, LTE; Long Term Evolution, and many other radio, wireless and RF technologies are using the new MIMO wireless technology to provide increased link capacity and spectral efficiency combined with improved link reliability.

  • MIMO technology uses a natural radio-wave phenomenon called multipath.
  • Using multipath, transmitted information bounces off walls, ceilings, and other objects, reaching the receiving antenna multiple times at different angles and slightly different times.
  • In the past, multipath caused interference and slowed down wireless signals.
  • MIMO technology uses multiple, smart transmitters and receivers with an added spatial dimension, increasing performance and range.
Several antennas are deployed at the base station as compared to only a few antennas in 3G or 4G technology.
This large antenna array at the base station allows the network to communicate reliably with a very large number of mobile terminals simultaneously at the same time and on the same frequency channel.
Better communication, low radiation from towers.

GS 3 Awareness in space science and technology.


  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched  IRNSS-1I satellite through its PSLV-C41.
  • It was the 20th flight of PSLV.
  • IRNSS-1I will transmit signals for the accurate determination of position, navigation .
  • IRNSS-1I will  carry two payloads  navigation payload and ranging payload .
  • Navigation payload will be used to transmit signals for determining position, velocity and time.
  • Ranging payload  will be used for determining the frequency range of the satellite.
About IRNSS-1I:
IRNSS-1I has been launched to replace India’s first navigation satellite IRNSS-1A, whose three Rubidium atomic clocks had stopped working two years ago.
The malfunctioning of the atomic clocks in IRNSS-1A made it difficult to measure precise locational data.
When the time signal is missing obtaining true positional accuracy becomes a problem.
IRNSS (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System). It is a set of satellites which together can provide India a regional positioning system similar to the GPS.
 IRNSS is designed to give position accuracy better than 20 metres to users in its primary coverage area.
            It can also service regions extending up to 1500 km around India’s boundary.
            NavIC (Navigation Indian Constellation) is the operational name for the IRNSS.
 IRNSS satellites in the constellation:
There are seven IRNSS satellites in orbit.
The last IRNSS1H, which was launched in  2017 was unsuccessful.
Applications of NAVIC:
It helps in land navigation ,marine and aerial navigation.
The data from these satellites can be used to give vehicle drivers visual and voice navigation assistance.
            They also help in disaster management.
Other countries:
            GPS -United States, GLONASS -Russia, Galileo - EU, BeiDou- China.
It is an  all encompassing coordinated and composite exercise conducted by the Indian Air Force.
The aim of this exercise is real time coordination, deployment and employment of Air Power in a short and intense battle scenario.
            It will hone the war fighting skills of the air warriors in a real time scenario thus affirming the IAF’s role as the cutting edge of our nation’s military capability.
PMNCH (The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health) is an alliance of more than 1000 organizations in 77 countries from the sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health communities.
The Partnership is governed by a Board, and administered by a Secretariat hosted at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Partnership provides a platform for organizations to align objectives, strategies and resources, and agree on interventions to improve maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
This Partner-centric approach mobilizes, engages and empowers different implementing partners. It allows them to coordinate their actions and activities, and encourages and promotes mutual accountability.